The moore reporT
table of organization & equipment

index for part a

A.     The Philippine Coast Artillery Command
         a. Corregidor Island (Ft. Mills).
         b. Caballo Island (Ft. Hughes).
         c. El Fraile Island (FL Drum).
         d. Carabao Island (Ft. Frank).
         e. Cavite Province.
         f.  Bataan Province.
         g. Subic Bay.
B.     The Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays
     1. Topography
     2. Personnel
     3. Armament
         a.  Seacoast.
         b. Anti-aircraft.
    4. Organization
         a. Tactical
         b. Administrative
          (1) Staff
          (2) Utilities
         c. Supply





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A. The Philippine Coast Artillery Command  ^

1. In August 1941 formation of the Philippine Coast Artillery Command was authorized by the War Department and headquarters was set up in Manila. In addition to the Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays the approved plan for the PCAC contemplated the establishment of a series of batteries of 8-in and 155-mm guns at locations sited for protection of the Philippine Island Seas and to be manned by Philippine Army troops who were undergoing training within the Harbor Defenses for this purpose. A number of guns of both calibers were on hand, extensive surveys had been made by PCAC Staff Officers, and construction on some batteries had started prior to the outbreak of hostilities. Establishment of the Japanese blockade halted further progress on the Inland Seas Defense.

2. On 26 September 1941, the 200th Coast Artillery (AA), New Mexico National Guard, arrived in the Philippines and was assigned to Fort Stotsenburg with the mission of protecting Clark Field. This regiment was assigned to the PCAC. With the advent of war, 20Oth Coast Artillery was split to form the 515th Coast Artillery (AA), armament for an additional regiment being available. Both regiments withdrew to Bataan with other American units but remained for a time under the PCAC, action being coordinated and directed through the Chief of Staff of the Command from advanced USAFFE Headquarters in Bataan. In March 1942 when the Luzon Force was established these two antiaircraft regiments were assigned to that force.

 B. The Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays ^

 The Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays consisted of four fortified islands (Corregidor, Caballo, El Fraile, and Carabao) at the entrance of Manila Bay and one fortified Island (Grande) at the entrance of Subic Bay. Headquarters of the Harbor Defenses was located at Fort Mills on Corregidor.

1. Topography

Exhibit "A" shows the location of the fortified islands at the entrances to Manila and Subic Bays. In order to better appreciate their interrelation and to visualize the situation in the Harbor Defenses, a brief description of each island and a few remarks relative to adjacent terrain on Luzon follow:







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Fort Mills Marker
(via Ed McCarthy)

a. Corregidor Island (Ft. Mills). ^   Fort Mills was located on Corregidor, the largest of the four fortified islands constituting the Defenses of Manila Bay. It has an area of less than two square miles and is about one and one-half miles across at its widest point and three and one-half miles long. The island is shaped like a tadpole with the head pointed to the west. The highest point on the island was the lighthouse, 528 feet above sea level. This was on the head of the island in the area generally designated as topside where most of the administrative offices were located. Other barracks and quarters were located on a shelf below this known as Middleside. The low center of the island called Bottomside contained the shop area, warehouses, north and south docks, the power plant and cold storage installations, and the principal Filipino barrio. Beyond Bottomside, eastward, lies Malinta Hill (elevation 390 feet) under which was located an extensive tunnel system. Further east is the tail of the island where a small landing field, the Navy radio intercept tunnel, and a few batteries were located.

Critical areas on the island from a defensive standpoint were Cheney Ravine which offered an approach to Topside, James and Ramsey Ravines leading to Middleside and the Bottomside areas with their beaches, docks, warehouses and utilities, and the beaches on the tail of the island.

b. Caballo Island (Ft. Hughes). ^   Fort Hughes was located on Caballo Island, nearest to Corregidor and next in size, among the fortified islands at the entrance of Manila Bay. It also had a low eastern section with a higher western portion having a maximum elevation of 381 feet. A concrete dock was located on the north side facing Corregidor. The area of the island is about one fourth square mile.

The most vulnerable area to a landing attack was the eastern beach section.

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c. El Fraile Island (FL Drum). Fort Drum was located on El Fraile Island, about 7500 yards south of Caballo Island and was the most unique of the Harbor Defense forts. On the original island as a base, army engineers completed in 1914 a reinforced concrete battleship 350 feet long by 144 feet wide, the top deck being 40 feet above mean low water and 20 feet thick. Exterior walls were approximately 25 feet to 36 feet thick. Equipped with 14in guns in armored turrets, 4 casemated 6in guns and a 60ft fire control cage mast, the fort was considered impregnable to enemy attack.
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d. Carabao Island (Ft. Frank). ^   Fort Frank was located on Carabao Island 5000 yards southwest of Fort Drum and within 500 yards of Cavite Province shore to the south. Smaller than Caballo and with its long axis north and south, this little island presented a formidable front to any would-be attacker. Its precipitous cliffs rise more than 100 feet from water's edge except at one point on the east side where a dock had been constructed. Highest elevation on the island is 180 feet. All batteries were connected by communication tunnels constructed years ago which, while affording overhead cover from enemy observation, were not bombproof nor adequately protected against enemy shell fire.

e. Cavite Province. ^     The Pico de Lora hills on the adjacent Cavite shore, rising to a height of 2225 feet, completely dominated Fort Frank and the surrounding terrain. Under current war plans this area was to have been occupied by an infantry battalion and one battery of field artillery when the main forces found it necessary to withdraw to Bataan. However this plan was not followed and the Japanese were able to occupy this important observation post early in January 1942, and from it to adjust heavy concentrations of artillery fire on Forts Frank and Drum.

The broken terrain between Ternate and Restinga Points on the Cavite shore south of Fort Drum offered excellent defiladed positions for artillery.

f. Bataan Province. ^    A similar situation existed to the north of the fortified islands. The Bataan peninsula, dominated by the heights of Mt. Mariveles, 4658 feet, is 3500 yards from Corregidor at the nearest point. There also, many sheltered ravines provided admirable artillery emplacements for the enemy after the fall of Bataan.

g. Subic Bay. ^    Subic Bay was about thirty-five miles northwest of Corregidor. Olongapo Navy Yard was located on the eastern shore of this bay. The Harbor Defenses for Subic Bay were at Fort Wint on Grande Island, and barred the channel leading into the bay. The island has an area of approximately 1/2 square mile, the highest point being 167 feet above sea level.

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H.C.  P. V.  McNut
reviews the troops

(National Archives Photo)

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2. Personnel  ^

The troops assigned to the Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays prior to the war consisted of approximately 150 officers, 2000 American enlisted men and 1200 Philippine Scouts. These were divided among four Coast Artillery regiments and Harbor Defense Headquarters, Military Police, Ordnance, Medical, Quartermaster, Chemical Warfare, and Engineer detachments.

One regiment, the 60th CA (American), manned antiaircraft weapons while the other three, the 59th CA (American), 91st CA (PS), and the 92d CA (PS), manned seacoast artillery batteries. This personnel was insufficient to provide a complete manning detail for all the armaments and no troops were available for beach defense except by dual assignment of the Coast Artillery. The state of training of these troops was excellent.

A detachment of 800 civil prisoners from Bilibid Prison, Manila, was maintained on Corregidor as a labor unit. This group was used for road and railway maintenance, loading and unloading cargo and for general utility labor.

In addition there were about 5000 civilians in the Harbor Defenses. Included in this group were families of officers and enlisted men, civilian government employees, trades people, and servants.

3. Armament  ^

a. Seacoast. ^    A detailed list of armament is shown in the Armament Tabulation (Exhibit C). Summarizing briefly it may be stated that the longest range cannon in the Harbor Defenses were two batteries of 12-in guns on Corregidor with all-around fire and horizontal range of about 30,000 yards. There were also at Fort Mills other 12-in gun batteries besides mortars and smaller calibers.

At the other three Manila Bay forts, calibers varied from 3-in to 14-in while at Fort Wint the heaviest guns were 10-in.

The controlled mine fields (Exhibit B) were operated from installations on Corregidor and protected by medium caliber artillery suitably sited there.

b. Anti-aircraft. ^    Anti-aircraft units were equipped with 3-in AA guns, .50 caliber machine guns, and 60-in Sperry searchlights. Late in 1941 two radio direction finding sets were received. Anti-aircraft war plans provided for an area defense which included the four fortified islands of Manila Bay and the southern tip of Bataan. One AA gun battery with a platoon of searchlights was provided for Fort Wint. During the war that battery withdrew to southern Bataan upon evacuating Fort Wint and joined the anti-aircraft area defense of the Harbor Defenses of Manila Bay.

4. Organization   ^

a. Tactical ^   The tactical organization of the Harbor Defense is shown by the Organization Chart, Exhibit "D". From this it will be seen that at Manila Bay forces were divided between the Seaward Defense and the Anti-aircraft Defense Command for normal functioning. Under the alternate possibility of beach defense missions each Fort Commander was responsible for his own local protection against a landing attack.

Administrative  ^   

(1) Staff. The Commanding General had the usual Special Staff to assist in the administration and supply of the Harbor Defenses.

(2) Utilities. The utilities which functioned under the staff officers were many and varied. For example:

An electric railway for passengers and freight with 13-1/2 miles for trackage

A post power plant

A cold storage and ice plant

65 miles of roads

21 deep wells and pumping system

3 Ordnance machine shops

The following harbor boats: Hyde, Miley, Mambukal, four launches, water barge, several cargo barges


(Note: The Mine Planter Harrison and auxiliary Mine Planter Neptune together with small boats used in the mine project functioned under the Mine Commander.)


c. Supply ^

(1) Food supplies on hand at the outbreak of hostilities, in spite of repeated efforts to increase the amount, were sufficient only for a six-month unbalanced ration for 7000 men.

(2) The supply of seacoast ammunition was ample but antiaircraft ammunition was definitely short, especially mechanically fuzed 3-in HE. There was very little ammunition on hand suitable for use by the seacoast artillery for attacking land targets. There were no star shells for illumination.



NOTES: ^   
The Exhibits & Annexes are under construction

Annexes to this report have been prepared from information furnished by various staff and other officers while prisoners of war. The Personnel Annex is probably not entirely correct. However, on 3 May 1942 complete rosters of all personnel in the Harbor Defenses alive at that time were dispatched to the United States by submarine leaving Corregidor for Australia. The extent of casualties between that date and the capitulation was not known but was believed to be approximately 600.